Generic filters
Exact matches only
Search in title
Search in content
Search in excerpt

Demystifying HMRC: Small Business Taxes

Handling taxes is a crucial aspect of running a business, but navigating the complexities of tax regulations can be overwhelming, especially for small businesses. The UK’s tax authority, HMRC, plays a central role in overseeing tax compliance and collection. Understanding HMRC and its interactions with small businesses is essential for ensuring smooth operations and avoiding common tax pitfalls.

In this guide, we offer in-depth insights and valuable recommendations to assist small businesses in effectively managing their tax obligations.

Tax obligations for small businesses

Registering your business with HMRC

Every new business in the UK must register with HMRC through the Government Gateway to meet its tax obligations. The registration process may vary depending on the type of business structure, and one crucial aspect of this registration is obtaining a unique taxpayer reference (UTR) number. Here, we’ll provide an overview of the features and responsibilities associated with different business structures. Keep in mind that this information serves for educational purposes only, and it is advisable to consult an expert to meet your specific needs.

sole-trader​Registering as a Sole Trader:

As “sole traders,” you can register with HMRC if you are self-employed and plan to run the business as an individual. The registration process for a sole trader is relatively straightforward, and you will need a National Insurance (NI) number. Key aspects of registering as a sole trader include:

  • Record your business expenses and sales.
  • Pay income tax on your profits, along with the applicable National Insurance rates.
  • Register for Value Added Tax (VAT) if your turnover exceeds £85,000 (voluntary registration is possible for lower turnovers to reclaim VAT on purchases).
  • Pay any business rates that apply to your operating property.
  • Your name and business name can be used on official paperwork; official registration of a business name is not required.

business-partnershipsRegistering as a Business Partnership:

If your business involves multiple individuals or entities, a “business partnership” might be suitable. In a partnership, each partner shares the responsibility for any losses incurred and the bills for stock, equipment, etc. Key aspects of partnership registration include:

  • Appoint a “nominated partner” who will be responsible for the company’s tax returns; other partners must register separately and file their individual tax returns.
  • Choose a business name, ensuring it doesn’t violate copyright, contain offensive language, imply it’s a limited company, or require special permissions (e.g., “accredited”).
  • Consider registering your business name as a trademark to prevent others from using it.
  • Include your name(s) and business name on all official paperwork.
  • Optional VAT registration for businesses with turnovers under £85,000.

limited-companyRegistering as a Limited Company:

A “limited company” is a separate legal entity from its owners, providing financial protection for shareholders. Registering a limited company involves a formal process with Companies House. Key aspects of limited company registration include:

  • Choose a company name that ends in “Limited” or “Ltd” and does not resemble other existing business names.
  • You may choose a separate business name for trading purposes; it cannot include “Limited” or “Ltd” and must be distinct from existing names.
  • Appoint at least one director whose name and address will be publicly available at Companies House.
  • Appoint a company secretary if desired.
  • Register for Value Added Tax (VAT) if your turnover exceeds £85,000 (voluntary registration is possible for lower turnovers to reclaim VAT on purchases).
  • Specify the shareholders and their entitlements in “prescribed particulars,” including their influence on business decisions.
  • Create a “memorandum of association” and “articles of association” outlining how the company will operate.
  • Register for corporation tax within three months of starting the business.

Corporate taxation and related considerations

Corporation tax rates and allowances

Corporation tax is a direct tax levied on the profits of limited companies and certain organisations operating in the UK. As a small business, understanding corporation tax rates and allowances is crucial for effective financial planning. Here are the key aspects to consider:

Corporation Tax Rates:

  • The rate of Corporation Tax your company pays depends on how much profit it makes.
  • From 1 April 2023, there is no longer a single Corporation Tax rate for non-ring fence profits.
  • The main rate for non-ring fence profits will increase to 25% for profits above £250,000.
  • A small profit rate of 19% will apply to companies with profits of £50,000 or less.
  • Companies with profits between £50,000 and £250,000 will pay tax at the main rate, reduced by a marginal relief.


Marginal Relief:

  • Marginal Relief provides a gradual increase in the effective Corporation Tax rate for companies with profits between £50,000 and £250,000.
  • Ring fence companies, which make profits from oil extraction or oil rights in the UK or UK continental shelf, can claim Marginal Relief on profits between £50,000 and £250,000 from 1 April 2023.

Preparing and filing corporate tax returns

Complying with HMRC’s requirements for preparing and filing corporate tax returns is vital to avoid penalties and maintain a good relationship with the tax authority. Some key considerations include:

Keeping accurate financial records:

  • Maintaining detailed and accurate financial records is essential for calculating the company’s profits, allowable deductions, and tax liability correctly.

Corporation Tax Returns (CT600):

Deadlines and penalties:

  • Ensure that your company meets the deadlines for filing corporate tax returns to avoid late filing penalties and interest charges.

Seeking professional advice:

  • Engaging with tax advisors or accountants who are well-versed in corporate taxation can help navigate the complexities of the tax system and ensure compliance.

Income Tax for Directors, Shareholders, and Employees in the UK

In the UK, different tax rules apply to directors, shareholders, and employees, each with its complexities and nuances to consider.

  • Directors and Shareholders: Obligated to register and submit Self Assessment annually via the SA1 form, reporting personal income, dividends, and other non-PAYE earnings.
  • Employees: Subject to income tax deductions via the PAYE system. Regular payslip reviews to ensure accurate tax deductions.

PAYE and National Insurance (NI) Contributions:

The PAYE system is used by HMRC to collect Income Tax and National Insurance contributions from employees’ wages. Employers are also required to make National Insurance contributions on behalf of their employees, with rates varying based on factors like income level and National Insurance class.

  • Role of Employers: Utilise the PAYE system to deduct income tax and NI from salaries and regularly remit these deductions to HMRC.
  • Essential Steps: Register with HMRC to obtain a PAYE reference number and provide detailed payslips to employees.

National Minimum Wage (NMW) and National Living Wage (NLW):

In the UK, the National Minimum Wage (NMW) and National Living Wage (NLW) are legal requirements that dictate the lowest pay rate a worker can receive – a crucial factor to consider for both employees and employers.

  • As of 2023:
    • NLW: £10.42 per hour for workers aged 23 and over.
    • NMW: Varies by age group, from £10.18 for those aged 21-22 to £9.10 for certain apprentices.
  • Compliance: To avoid penalties and reputational damage, businesses must meet or exceed these rates.

Workplace Pension Schemes (Auto-Enrolment):

In the UK, employers are legally obligated to automatically enrol eligible employees into a workplace pension scheme, a financial initiative to help individuals save for retirement.

  • Legal Requirement: Employers must automatically enrol eligible employees (aged 22 to State Pension age) into a pension scheme and make necessary contributions.
  • Benefits: Contributes to employees’ financial well-being and promotes staff retention and loyalty.

Small businesses build trust with employees, maintain legal compliance, and foster a positive work environment by understanding and meeting all employment taxes and payroll obligations. Professional advice and reliable payroll software are recommended for simplifying this process. 

Value Added Tax (VAT) and Compliance

Understanding VAT and When It Applies

Value Added Tax (VAT) is a consumption tax levied on goods, services, and other taxable supplies. As a business owner, it’s crucial to grasp how VAT affects your company’s accounting, cash flow, and compliance obligations. VAT is charged on various business activities, including sales of goods and services, the hire or loan of goods, commission, exchanges, staff sales, and the sale of business assets. It is important to note that charities have different VAT rules governing their transactions. VAT is ultimately borne by the consumer and is added to business invoices. While businesses collect VAT from customers, they must report and pay it to HMRC.

VAT Registration and Thresholds

Businesses with a turnover exceeding £85,000 are legally required to register for VAT. This registration enables you to charge VAT on your goods and services. However, businesses with lower turnovers may still benefit from voluntary VAT registration. Being VAT-registered allows businesses to reclaim VAT on their business-related purchases, enhancing their financial standing and appearance of being well-established.

VAT Return Deadlines

VAT-registered businesses must regularly submit VAT returns to HMRC, typically every three months. These returns outline the amount of VAT charged on sales and the VAT paid on purchases. Even if a business has no VAT to report for a specific period, it must still complete and submit the return.

VAT Schemes for Small Businesses

Several VAT schemes are available to help small businesses manage their VAT responsibilities more effectively. For example, the VAT Flat Rate Scheme simplifies the calculation of VAT due, while the VAT Cash Accounting Scheme allows businesses to account for VAT based on cash flow. Each scheme has specific eligibility criteria and benefits, making it essential for businesses to choose the one that suits their needs best.

Changes to VAT After Brexit

Post-Brexit, VAT legislation has undergone several modifications. Import VAT now applies to goods entering the UK from both EU and non-EU countries if their value exceeds £135. Businesses have the option to account for import VAT on their VAT return instead of paying it immediately. Exports to the EU are now zero-rated for UK VAT, but certain conditions may require EU VAT registration. Additionally, Northern Ireland’s special trade status requires businesses to consider specific VAT regulations when dealing with the region.

New Changes to VAT in 2023

In 2023, further changes to VAT regulations have been introduced. A point-based penalty system now applies to late VAT returns and payments, with fixed penalties and daily rates for outstanding amounts. Interest on late payments is now calculated based on the Bank of England base rate plus 2.5%. HMRC has revised its guidance for the second-hand margin scheme for used car sales to Northern Ireland and the EU, introducing a new VAT-related payment scheme.

Moreover, retained EU laws are set to be repealed under the Retained EU Law (Revocation and Reform) Bill, potentially leading to further VAT changes in the future.

As VAT laws continue to evolve, staying informed and compliant is essential for businesses to navigate the ever-changing legislative landscape successfully.

Business Rates: Understanding and Calculation

Business rates are crucial taxes on properties used for business, funding local authority services. For compliance and financial planning, it’s good to grasp their concept and how to calculate them.

Key Points:

  • Charged by the government on non-domestic properties like offices, shops, and warehouses, supporting local services.
  • Calculate using the “rateable value” determined during revaluation (April 2023) multiplied by the relevant multiplier.

Changes in 2023:

  • Significant changes introduced to address property value fluctuations since 2017:
    • Multipliers frozen from 2023-24, resulting in £9.3 billion tax cut over five years.
    • Transitional relief scheme caps bill increases at 2023 rates.

Reliefs for Small Businesses:

  • Small business rates relief is available for properties valued below £15,000, with gradual reduction up to £12,001.
  • Explore other reliefs on the government website.

Seeking Assistance:

Tax planning and optimisation strategies

Effective tax planning is crucial for businesses to manage their tax liabilities efficiently while remaining compliant with tax laws and regulations. Implementing legal and ethical tax planning methods enables businesses to optimise their financial position and allocate resources more effectively. This section covers key strategies to maximise tax efficiency and utilise tax-advantaged investments.

Legal and ethical tax planning Methods

Businesses can employ various legal and ethical tax planning methods to minimise their tax burdens. These methods include:

  1. Understanding tax laws: Staying informed about tax laws and regulations is fundamental to identifying opportunities for tax optimisation while ensuring compliance.
  2. Claiming appropriate deductions: Identifying eligible deductions and credits allows businesses to reduce their taxable income and lower their tax liabilities.
  3. Timing of income and expenses: Strategically timing income recognition and expenses can help control the taxable income for a specific year, potentially resulting in lower tax liabilities.
  4. Choosing the right business structure: Selecting an appropriate business structure, such as a sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, or limited liability company (LLC), can have significant tax implications.
  5. Transfer pricing: For multinational companies, proper transfer pricing practices can help allocate income and expenses across different jurisdictions, optimizing tax outcomes.

Maximising tax efficiency for your business

Optimising tax efficiency is a continuous process that involves strategic decision-making throughout the financial year. Key considerations include:

  1. Investment in technology: Embracing digital solutions for accounting, tax compliance, and financial reporting streamlines processes and reduces the risk of errors.
  2. Employee benefit programs: Offering tax-efficient employee benefits packages can attract and retain top talent while providing tax advantages for both employees and the business.
  3. Retirement planning: Proper retirement planning can involve contributing to tax-advantaged retirement accounts, which not only secure employees’ futures but also offer tax benefits to the business.
  4. Capital expenditure planning: Assessing and planning capital expenditures strategically can help businesses take advantage of tax depreciation benefits.

Utilising Tax Reliefs and incentives for small businesses

The UK government offers various tax reliefs and incentives to encourage investment and growth in small companies. Leveraging these reliefs can provide valuable financial advantages. Some key reliefs include:

  1. Small Business Rate Relief (SBRR): SBRR offers relief on business rates for eligible small businesses with a rateable value below a certain threshold, reducing or eliminating their business rates burden.
  2. Capital Allowances: Businesses can claim tax relief on capital expenditure (e.g., equipment, machinery) used in their trade, allowing for deductions over time, and reducing the overall tax liability.
  3. Employment Allowance: Eligible businesses can reduce their National Insurance Contributions (NICs) liability through the Employment Allowance, easing the cost of employing staff.
  4. R&D Tax Credits: Designed to promote innovation, R&D tax credits provide tax relief for companies engaged in research and development activities.
  • SME R&D Relief: Small and Medium-sized Enterprises can claim enhanced tax relief on qualifying R&D expenses, potentially reducing their corporation tax liability or receiving cash credits if they are loss-making.
  • Research and Development Expenditure Credit (RDEC): Large companies or SMEs ineligible for SME R&D Relief can claim RDEC, a taxable credit, to offset R&D costs.

It is essential for businesses to seek professional advice from qualified tax advisors or accountants to implement effective tax planning and optimisation strategies tailored to their specific circumstances. While optimising tax efficiency is a legitimate goal, it is essential to uphold ethical practices and adhere to tax laws to maintain the integrity of the business’s financial operations.

Common Tax pitfalls and how to avoid them

As UK businesses navigate the complexities of the tax landscape, it’s essential to be aware of common tax pitfalls that could lead to penalties, late filing fees, and HMRC audits. By understanding these potential pitfalls and implementing proactive measures, businesses can safeguard their financial health and compliance with UK tax laws.

Avoiding tax penalties and late filing fees

  1. Filing company tax returns on time: Submitting an accurate and timely company tax return is crucial to avoid penalties. Missing the deadline for filing can result in financial penalties and interest on the outstanding tax amount.
  2. Meeting VAT deadlines: Ensuring VAT returns are filed, and VAT payments are made on time is essential for businesses registered for VAT. Late VAT filings can lead to fines and additional scrutiny from HMRC.
  3. Complying with PAYE regulations: Businesses must meet their obligations for Pay As You Earn (PAYE) and pay National Insurance contributions for their employees. Failing to do so can result in penalties and potential legal issues.
  4. Accurate record-keeping: Maintaining accurate financial records and supporting documentation is vital. Poor record-keeping can lead to errors in tax calculations and difficulties during audits.
  5. Claiming allowable deductions: While it’s important to claim all eligible deductions, businesses should avoid claiming deductions that are not allowable under UK tax laws. Inaccurate deductions can trigger HMRC inquiries.

Red flags for HMRC audits

  1. Consistently reporting losses: If a business consistently reports losses or significantly lower profits, it may raise suspicion with HMRC. While legitimate business losses are acceptable, consistent losses without reasonable explanations may attract scrutiny.
  2. Unusually high expenses: Claiming unusually high expenses that are not commensurate with the nature of the business can be a red flag for HMRC. Expenses should be genuine, directly related to business operations, and supported by receipts and documentation.
  3. Unusual transactions or patterns: Unusual financial transactions or patterns may draw HMRC’s attention. It’s essential to have a clear and legitimate rationale for any significant deviations from standard business practices.
  4. Large variances between declared and industry averages: HMRC may investigate businesses that report significantly lower profits compared to industry averages. It’s crucial to ensure that the reported figures align with the business’s actual financial performance.

Correcting tax mistakes and errors

  1. Promptly correcting errors: In case of any tax mistakes or errors, it is best to address them promptly. If a business identifies an error in a previous tax return, it should take steps to correct it and notify HMRC accordingly.
  2. Using HMRC’s digital services: HMRC offers digital tools and resources that can help businesses avoid common errors during tax filing. Utilising these resources can enhance accuracy and reduce the likelihood of mistakes.
  3. Seeking professional advice: When in doubt about tax matters, businesses should seek advice from qualified tax advisors or accountants with expertise in UK tax laws, especially for complex situations or changes in tax regulations (pay corporation tax, small business tax).

By being proactive, vigilant, and attentive to tax matters, UK businesses can minimise the risk of encountering common tax pitfalls and ensure compliance with tax regulations. Avoiding tax penalties, late filing fees, and HMRC audits contributes to the financial stability and reputation of the business. Remember, staying informed about the latest tax updates and maintaining accurate records are crucial steps in navigating the UK tax landscape successfully.

Just a quick heads up!

If you’re an R&D-intensive business, you’ll know just how challenging it is to claim R&D Tax Credits. We can help you with that; we have helped 1,000+ tech startups accelerate and streamline their R&D claims with our platform + service; learn more about it here.

2023 & Beyond. Unlocking UK Tech Growth through R&D

2023 and Beyond: Unlocking UK Tech Growth Through R&D

Discover key insights from over 300 tech leaders

More from our blog

7 ways to legitimately reduce your Corporation Tax Bill
With the Corporation tax rate increasing from 19% to 25% in April 2023, more companies are feeling the squeeze each month. Combined with rising costs ...
Navigating the new R&D tax credit claim process in 2024: A comprehensive guide
In his Autumn Statement of 2021, then-chancellor Rishi Sunak announced significant R&D tax relief reforms, marking the beginning of a series of changes designed to ...
The Labour government’s plans for R&D, innovation and funding
With Keir Starmer stepping in as Prime Minister on July 5th, the UK is embarking on a new chapter focused on economic growth and innovation. ...
Scroll to Top